Wikis > Guidelines for SP LCA module
Picture: Anna Zigge

Picture: Anna Zigge

The SP LCA module is based on an existing open source tool, developed in a Swedish project, Renobuild, suitable for Swedish conditions. Within Ecodistr-ICT, the Renobuild environmental calculation tool has been modified, primarily by adding some new renovation options, by extending the usability for more countries and by integrating it into the Ecodistr-ICT IDSS platform.

Before using the SP LCA module, the user has to contact and sign an agreement with the LCA-data provider Ecoinvent (www.ecoinvent.org) in order to get a sub-licensing right for access to a certain number of datasets from the Ecoinvent database. (The datasets used in SP LCA module are listed below.)

KPIs (outcome)

• Change in Global Warming Potential per heated area and year, tonnes of CO2eq/m2,year

• Change in primary energy demand per heated area and year, MWh/m2, year

 

Find out global warming potential and primary energy demand of renovation alternatives

SP LCA module calculates and evaluates renovation measures from a global warming potential and primary energy demand perspective, using a life cycle approach. The results are provided as changes in global warming potential (CO2-equivalents) and use of primary energy compared to a reference case (current situation, no renovation made).

The module is mainly intended for estimating environmental impact of different renovation alternatives during the planning phase.

Based on life cycle assessment (LCA) on both building and district levels

The LCA module calculates the change in global warming potential (tonnes CO2eq/m2, year) and primary energy demand (MWh/ m2, year) from a lifecycle perspective.

The module includes data and calculation models for a number of predefined renovation measures in the heating system, building envelope, ventilation, piping and possible installation of local energy production. The life cycle includes material for renovation, changes in yearly energy consumption, changes in how the heating is produced and finally the end of life treatment of the building material used in renovation.

The module calculates the changes in global warming potential (tonnes CO2eq/m2, year) and primary energy demand (MWh/ m2, year) that follow from a renovation scenario including one or several renovation measures. Renovation measures that can be evaluated in the SP LCA module:

  • Heat source in building (heat pump, district heating, pellets boiler, oil boiler, gas boiler, electric boiler, direct electricity heating)
  • Cooling (by combined heating and cooling solutions using heat pumps, both air to water and water to water)
  • Insulation of building (insulation material and/or prefabricated façade system)
  • Windows and/or doors
  • Ventilation system (ducts, exhaust air units, ventilation unit with heat recovery; exhaust air heat pump)
  • Energy efficient water taps
  • Radiators (waterborne or electric heating)
  • Piping for water and heating system
  • Local energy production by PVs

 

The calculations are carried out on building level (yearly energy demands), and scaled up using averages on a district level.

The module contains a large amount of environmental background data, e.g. emissions from production of some types of insulation materials and boilers that has been collected from reports and databases, e.g. Ecoinvent, which can be considered as averages and applicable to European conditions. In reality the impact differs depending on where and how these materials are produced. If more detailed analysis is required, a full life cycle assessment investigating all specific supplies needs to be carried out, which would require far more effort than using the SP LCA module.

Regarding energy use, different methodologies to assess environmental impact exist. In this case average data of energy production mixes have been used:

  • For use of electricity, country specific production mixes can be selected (currently available mixes: Belgium, Netherlands, Poland, Spain and Sweden).
  • For district heating, local emission and primary energy data are needed as input.

Input data on energy use are aggregated to yearly data. If energy use shifts to other periods of the year after renovation or if different heat sources are used depending on season (e.g. when combining district heating and heat pumps) after renovation, the actual impact may differ from calculation results.

Interdependence to other modules

Calculations of energy demand and changes in energy demand (heating and electricity) of heating, cooling and ventilations systems are to be provided by another module in the Ecodistr-ICT IDSS platform.

References and more information

As mentioned above, the SP LCA module is based on a tool that was developed within another project, Renobuild. A detailed report (in Swedish; abstract in English) about Renobuild environmental calculation tool can be downloaded at the following link>>

Ecoinvent database: Ecoinvent Centre, Ecoinvent data v2.0, Ecoinvent reports No. 1-25, Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories, Duebendorf, Switzerland, (2007)

List of input data LCA module

The input data used in the LCA calculations are listed below (Table 1).

Calculations of energy demand and changes in energy demand (heat and electricity) of heating, cooling and ventilations systems are to be provided by another module in the IDSS. The calculations in the LCA module are carried out on building level (yearly energy demands), and scaled up using averages on a district level.

Applicable to district/module settings  Unit Explanations
LCA calculation period Years Period of time for which total life cycle impact is summarised
Country (to select electricity mix) NA Included: Belgium, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden
Applicable to district heating system    
Global warming potential of district heating g CO2eq/

kWh

Required if building uses district heating. Impact per unit energy delivered to building, i.e. including distribution losses.
Primary energy factor of district heating NA Required if building uses district heating. Primary energy per unit energy delivered to building, i.e. including distribution losses.
Applicable to building before renovation    
Heated area m2 Mandatory if the results will be given per m2
Heat source before renovation NA Included: Heat pump, district heating, pellets boiler, oil boiler, gas boiler, electric boiler, direct electricity heating
Renovation options applicable to building    
Applicable to building heating system   Inputs below required if heat source is replaced
Annual heat demand after renovation kWh/year Includes space heating and heat for domestic hot water
Annual electricity demand for heat pump after renovation kWh/year Required if heat pump is installed
Heat source after renovation NA Included: Geothermal heat pump, district heating, pellets boiler, oil boiler, electric boiler, direct electricity heating, gas boiler, air/water heat pump. (Exhaust air heat pump can be added in the ventilation section below. If direct electric heating is replaced by water-borne heating: add radiators and pipes below.)
Life of product years Practical lifetime of the products and materials used
Design capacity kW Required for pellets boiler, oil boiler and gas boiler
Weight of boiler/heat pump/district heating substation kg Required except for direct electricity heating
For geothermal heat pump: Depth of borehole m Required for geothermal heat pump
Applicable to pump in building heating system   Inputs below required if circulation pump in building heating system is replaced
Life of product years Practical time of life of the products and materials used
Weight kg
Applicable to renovation of building shell, ventilation and/or circulation pump   Inputs below required if building shell, ventilation and/or circulation pump is replaced
Change in annual heat demand due to renovation kWh/year Includes space heating and heat for domestic hot water
Change in annual electricity demand (excluding electricity for heating and cooling) MWh/year
Change in annual electricity demand for cooling MWh/year
Applicable to building shell – insulation material 1   Inputs below required if building shell is renovated, for each component respectively
Life of product years Practical time of life of the products and materials used
Type of insulation NA Included: Cellulose fibre, glass wool, rock wool, polystyrene foam
Amount of new insulation material kg Required if renovation includes new insulation material
Applicable to building shell – insulation material 2   Inputs below required if building shell is renovated, for each component respectively
Life of product years Practical time of life of the products and materials used
Type of insulation NA Included: Cellulose fibre, glass wool, rock wool, polystyrene foam
Amount of new insulation material kg Required if renovation includes new insulation material
Applicable to building shell – facade systems   Inputs below required if building shell is renovated, for each component respectively
Life of product years Practical time of life of the products and materials used
Type of façade system NA Available façade systems: see below *.
Area of new facade system m2 Required if renovation includes new facade system
Applicable to building shell – windows   Inputs below required if building shell is renovated, for each component respectively
Life of product years Practical time of life of the products and materials used
Type of windows NA Included materials in frame: aluminium, plastic, wood-metal, wood
Area of new windows m2 Required if renovation includes new windows
Applicable to building shell – doors   Inputs below required if building shell is renovated, for each component respectively
Life of product years Practical time of life of the products and materials used
Type of doors NA Included: Front door wood-aluminium, front door wood-glass, balcony door glass-wood, balcony door glass-wood-aluminium
Number of new front doors NA Required if renovation includes new doors
Applicable to building ventilation system   Inputs below required if building ventilation ducts is renovated
Life of ventilation ducts years Practical time of life of the products and materials used. Required if renovation includes new ventilation ducts
Material in ventilation ducts NA Required if renovation includes new ventilation ducts. Included: steel, polyethylene
Weight of ventilation ducts kg Required if renovation includes new ventilation ducts
Applicable to building ventilation system   Inputs below required if building ventilation airflow assembly is renovated
Life of airflow assembly years Practical time of life of the products and materials used. Required if renovation includes new ventilation ducts
Type of airflow assembly NA Required if renovation includes new airflow assembly. Included: exhaust air unit, ventilation unit with heat recovery, exhaust air heat pump
Design airflow (exhaust air) m3/h Required if renovation includes new airflow assembly
Applicable to building ventilation system   Inputs below required if building ventilation air distribution housings is renovated
Number of air distribution housings NA
Life of air distribution housings and silencers years Practical time of life of the products and materials used. Required if renovation includes new ventilation ducts
Applicable to building radiators   Inputs below required if radiators are replaced
Life of product years Practical time of life of the products and materials used
Type of radiators NA Included: waterborne, electricity
Weight of new radiators kg
Applicable to building water taps   Inputs below required if taps are replaced
Life of product years Practical time of life of the products and materials used
Number of taps NA (If energy efficient taps are installed; add to change in heat demand)
Applicable to building piping systems – Copper   Inputs below required if pipings are replaced
Life of product years Practical time of life of the products and materials used
Weight of new pipes kg
Applicable to building piping systems – PEX   Inputs below required if pipings are replaced
Life of product years Practical time of life of the products and materials used
Weight of new pipes kg
Applicable to building piping systems – PP   Inputs below required if pipings are replaced
Life of product years Practical time of life of the products and materials used
Weight of new pipes kg
Applicable to building piping systems – Cast iron   Inputs below required if pipings are replaced
Life of product years Practical time of life of the products and materials used
Weight of new pipes kg
Applicable to building piping systems – Galvanised steel   Inputs below required if pipings are replaced
Life of product years Practical time of life of the products and materials used
Weight of new pipes kg
Applicable to building piping systems – Relining   Inputs below required if pipings are replaced
Life of product years Practical time of life of the products and materials used
Weight of new relining material kg
Applicable to building electrical wiring   Inputs below required if elecrical wiring is replaced
Life of product years Practical time of life of the products and materials used
Weight of new wires kg
Applicable to building energy production   Inputs below required if energy production facility is installed
Life of product years Practical time of life of the products and materials used
Type of energy production facility NA PV (solar electricity)
Size of facility kg
Annual electricity generation kWh/year

 

* Available facade systems, specified in the format System label\Plaster thickness in mm\Ventilated or not\Insulation material\Insulation thickness:

A\8-15mm\Non ventilated\EPS\200mm
B\4-8mm\Ventilated\Rock wool\50mm
B\4-8mm\Ventilated\Rock wool\80mm
B\4-8mm\Ventilated\Rock wool\100mm
C\8-12mm\Non ventilated\EPS\50mm
C\8-12mm\Non ventilated\EPS\80mm
C\8-12mm\Non ventilated\EPS\100mm
D\20-mm\Non ventilated\Rock wool\50mm
D\20-mm\Non ventilated\Rock wool\80mm
D\20-mm\Non ventilated\Rock wool\100mm
E\10-15mm\Non ventilated\Rock wool\50mm
E\10-15mmNon ventilated\Rock wool\80mm
E\10-15mm\Non ventilated\Rock wool\100mm
E\10-15mm\Non ventilated\Rock wool, PIR\50+150mm
F\4-8mm\Ventilated\Rock wool\80mm
F\4-8mm\Ventilated\Rock wool\100mm

Ecoinvent datasets used in the LCA module of Ecodistr-ICT

The following datasets are used in Ecodistr-ICT LCA calculation module, implementing 2 indicators, Climate impact from ReCiPe Midpoint H V1.04 Europe and Total energy demand from Cumulative energy demand v 1.05, total energy demand.

  1. Cellulose fibre, inclusive blowing in, at plant/CH S (of project Ecoinvent system processes)
  2. Glass wool mat, at plant/CH S (of project Ecoinvent system processes)
  3. Rock wool, at plant/CH S (of project Ecoinvent system processes)
  4. Polystyrene foam slab, at plant/RER U
  5. Window frame, aluminium, U=1.6 W/m2K, at plant/RER S (of project Ecoinvent system processes)
  6. Window frame, plastic (PVC), U=1.6 W/m2K, at plant/RER S (of project Ecoinvent system processes)
  7. Window frame, wood-metal, U=1.6 W/m2K, at plant/RER S (of project Ecoinvent system processes)
  8. Window frame, wood, U=1.5 W/m2K, at plant/RER S (of project Ecoinvent system processes)
  9. Door, outer, wood-aluminium, at plant/RER S (of project Ecoinvent system processes)
  10. Door, outer, wood-glass, at plant/RER S (of project Ecoinvent system processes)
  11. Ventilation duct, steel, 100×50 mm, at plant/RER S
  12. Ventilation duct, PE corrugated tube, DN 75, at plant/RER S
  13. Ventilation equipment, central, 600-1200 m3/h, at plant/RER U
  14. Air distribution housing, steel, 120 m3/h, at plant/CH S
  15. Silencer, steel, DN 125, at plant/CH S
  16. Glass fibre reinforced plastic, polyester resin, hand lay-up, at plant/RER U (of project Ecoinvent unit processes)
  17. Cable, connector for computer, without plugs, at plant/GLO U (of project Ecoinvent unit processes)
  18. 1 m2 Slanted-roof construction, mounted, on roof/RER/I S (of project Ecoinvent system processes)
  19. Electricity, low voltage, at grid/SE
  20. Electricity, low voltage, at grid/NL
  21. Electricity, low voltage, at grid/ES
  22. Electricity, low voltage, at grid/PL
  23. Electricity, low voltage, at grid/BE
  24. Heat, wood pellets, at furnace 50 kW/CH S
  25. Heat, light fuel oil, at boiler 10 kW, non-modulating/CH S
  26. Heat, natural gas, at boiler atmospheric non-modulating <100kW/RER S
  27. Borehole heat exchanger 150 m/CH/I U
  28. Heat pump, brine-water, 10kW/CH/I U
  29. Furnace, pellets, 15kW/CH/I U
  30. Furnace, pellets, 50kW/CH/I U
  31. Oil boiler 10kW/CH/I U
  32. Oil boiler 100kW/CH/I U
  33. Oil storage 3000l/CH/I U

 

Input data can be uploaded via the Dashboard, please turn to the Dashboard guidelines  and the guidelines for the Data Upload module for more information.  (Input data fields for the LCA module are still to be added in the database and in the Data Upload module.)

Information for programmers

For more information about the LCA module for programmers, turn to link >>. (The LCA module is still to be connected to the IDSS platform.)

 

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